|Executive Order 9981 is an
executive order issued on July 26, 1948 by President Harry S. Truman. It
expanded on Executive Order 8802 by establishing equality of treatment and
opportunity in the Armed Services for people of all races, religions, or
|The operative statement is:
|It is hereby declared to
be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and
opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race,
color, religion or national origin. This policy shall be put into effect as
rapidly as possible, having due regard to the time required to effectuate any
necessary changes without impairing efficiency or morale.
|The order also established a
committee to investigate and make recommendations to the civilian leadership
of the military to realize the policy.
|Among the order's effects
was the elimination of Montford Point as a segregated Marine boot camp (the
camp became a satellite facility of Camp Lejeune). The last of the all-black
units in the United States military was abolished in September 1954.
|Fifteen years after Truman's
order, on July 26, 1963 Robert S. McNamara issued Directive 5120.36
obligating military commanders to utilize the economic might of the military
against facilities used by soldiers or their families that discriminated
based upon sex or race.