Operations in the Indian
Confederate troops began a campaign to
subdue the Native American Union sympathizers in Indian Territory and
Confederate forces had attacked Chief
Opothleyahola’s band of Creeks and Seminoles at Round Mountain and
They planned to finish them off by assaulting them
in their camp at Chustenahlah in a well-protected cove on Battle Creek.
Col. James McQueen McIntosh
McIntosh’s and Douglas Cooper’s
Creek and Seminole
Col. James McQueen McIntosh and
Douglas H. Cooper, commanding the Indian Department, planned a combined attack
with each of their columns moving on the camp from different directions.
McIntosh left Fort Gibson on December 22,
1861 with 1,380 men.
On the 25th, he learned that
Cooper’s force could not join for a while, but
McIntosh decided to
attack the next day, despite being outnumbered.
McIntosh attacked the camp at
noon on the 26th.
The Indian defenders were secluded in the underbrush along the
slope of a rugged hill,.
As the Confederate attacked, the Creek and
Seminole Indians fell back.
retreat became a rout as the Indians reached their camp where they attempted to make
a stand there but were forced away again.
The survivors fled with many going to Kansas where they found loyal Unionists.
Chief Opothleyahola’s band of
Creeks and Seminoles mounted no resistance again.
The Battle of
Chustenahlah - War
1 National Park
- having a decisive influence on a
campaign and a direct impact on the course of the war
having a direct and decisive influence on their campaign
having observable influence on the
outcome of a campaign
having a limited influence on the
outcome of their campaign or operation but achieving or affecting important
3 Casualties are
someone killed, injured, wounded, captured or missing.