Glorieta Pass, NM

[Battle of Glorieta Pass by Roy Anderson - Courtesy of Wikipedia]

Date(s): March 26-28, 1862

Location: Please click on link below for map.

Glorieta Pass (pass), New Mexico, United States

Campaign(s): Sibley’s New Mexico Campaign [1862]

Battles in Campaign:

Situation:

Commanders:

  • Union: Maj. John C. Chivington and Col. John P. Slough

  • Confederate: Maj. Charles L. Pyron and Lt. Col. William R. Scurry

Principal Forces:

  • Union: Northern Division, Army of New Mexico

  • Confederate: 4th, 5th, and 7th Texas Cavalry Regiment, artillery, and a company of independent volunteers

Description:

  • Glorieta Pass was a strategic location, situated at the southern tip of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, southeast of Santa Fe, and on the Santa Fe Trail.

  • In March 1862, a Confederate force of 200-300 Texans under the command of Maj. Charles L. Pyron camped at Johnson’s Ranch, at one end of the pass.

  • Union Maj. John M. Chivington led more than 400 soldiers to the Pass and on the morning of March 26th moved out to attack.

  • The two forces engaged in the afternoon, with Chivington’s men flanking the Confederate troops and capturing the rearguard. Chivington retired and camped at Kozlowski’s Ranch.

  • Reinforcements arrived the next day with Lt. Col. William R. Scurry’s troops increasing the Confederate forces to about 1,100 while Union Col. John P. Slough arrived with about 900 men.

  • Both Slough and Scurry decided to attack and set out early on the 28th to do so.

  • The fighting continued the next day with Scurry's Confederates repulsing the Union attack and driving Slough back to Kozlowski’s Ranch.

  • Scurry thought he had won the battle, however, he discovered that Chivington’s men had destroyed all Scurry’s supplies and animals at Johnson’s Ranch.

  • Although Scurry had won the day he was forced to retreat to Santa Fe and then to San Antonio, Texas.

  • The Union victory at Glorieta Pass was the turning point of the war in the New Mexico Territory and stopped Confederate incursions into the Southwest.

Photo Gallery:1

Roadside marker describing the Battle of Glorieta Pass

Description of the Battles - Pecos National Historical Park

Painting of the Battle of Glorieta Pass - Pecos National Historical Park

Union troops destroy Confederate supply trains - Pecos National Historical Park

Civil War troops in New Mexico - Pecos National Historical Park

Map of Battle of Glorieta Pass - Pecos National Historical Park

The Civil War in the Pecos Valley - Pecos National Historical Park

Items found at the Glorieta Battlefield - Pecos National Historical Park

Description of battle at site of future visitor center and proposed walking tour

Description of monuments at site

Colorado Monument

Texas Monument

Site of Future Visitor Center

Site of Future Visitor Center

Buildings from Pigeon's Ranch

Well at Pigeon's Ranch

Buildings from Pigeon's Ranch

 

Classification2: A

Casualties3:

  • Union: 142   

  • Confederate: 189

Results: Union Victory Miniature Union Victory

Battlefield Websites:

Lodging and Restaurants: New Mexico Tourism

Recommended Resources:


1 Please click on the image to enlarge it. You may copy the images if you include the following note and link with each image: "Courtesy of civil-war-journeys.org."

2 Classification:

  • A - having a decisive influence on a campaign and a direct impact on the course of the war

  • B - having a direct and decisive influence on their campaign

  • C - having observable influence on the outcome of a campaign

  • D - having a limited influence on the outcome of their campaign or operation but achieving or affecting important local objectives

3 Casualties are someone killed, injured, wounded, captured or missing.

Revised 03/29/2013